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Scientific Research about Hypnosis


General Hypnosis Information

50 years of hypnosis in medicine and clinical health psychology: a synthesis of cultural crosscurrents.
Weisberg MB. Am J Clin Hypn. 2008 Jul; 51(1):13-27.
This paper summarizes the use of medical hypnosis in hospitals and clinics throughout the country. It also describes how hypnosis affects the brain, facilitating measurable physiological responses and physical changes.

Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.
Adinolfi B, Gava N. Acta Biomed. 2013 Sep 1; 84(2):94-7.
Clinical hypnosis is effective in the management of fear, pain and other kinds of stressful experiences in children; children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem. Some specific examples of clinical applications of hypnosis in pediatrics are: reduction of pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, and invasive medical procedures. Hypnosis is effective in the management of burn pain and chemotherapy-related distress (pain and nausea), treatment of recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, cystic fibrosis, insomnia, habitual disorders, dermatologic conditions (atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema), and other conditions.

Hypnosis for depression, stress, and anxiety

Hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders.
Hammond DC. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010 Feb;10(2):263-73. doi: 10.1586/ern.09.140.
Self-hypnosis represents a rapid, cost-effective, nonaddictive and safe alternative to medication for the treatment of anxiety and anxiety-related medical conditions, such as tension headaches, migraines and irritable bowel syndrome.

Clinical research on the utility of hypnosis in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders.
Nash MR, Perez N, Tasso A, Levy JJ. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2009 Oct;57(4):443-50. doi: 10.1080/00207140903099153.
The authors summarize four articles which address the role of hypnosis in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders and conditions.

Hypnosis for IBS

Long-term success of GUT-directed group hypnosis for patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
Moser G, Trägner S, Gajowniczek EE, Mikulits A, Michalski M, Kazemi-Shirazi L, Kulnigg-Dabsch S, Führer M, Ponocny-Seliger E, Dejaco C, Miehsler W. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr;108(4):602-9. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.19. Epub 2013 Feb 19.
Gut-directed hypnotherapy improves quality of life in patients in IBS, is superior to medical treatment combined with supportive talks, and shows a long-term effect even in refractory IBS.

Group Hypnosis Improves Symptoms and Quality of Life in IBS.
Boggs, W. 2013 Mar 14.
Because of its efficacy, gut-directed hypnotherapy should be offered as a routine treatment for IBS.

Gut-directed hypnotherapy for functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome in children: a systematic review.
Rutten JM, Reitsma JB, Vlieger AM, Benninga MA. Arch Dis Child. 2013 Apr; 98(4):252-7. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302906. Epub 2012 Dec 6.
This paper provides a systemic review of literature pertaining to the use of hypnosis for treatment of functional abdominal pain (FAP) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in children. Reviewed studies demonstrate that the therapeutic effects of hypnotherapy are superior to standard medical care in children with FAP or IBS.

Long-term follow-up of gut-directed hypnotherapy vs. standard care in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome.

Vlieger AM, Rutten JM, Govers AM, Frankenhuis C, Benninga MA. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Apr;107(4):627-31. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2011.487. Epub 2012 Feb 7.
In previous studies the authors proved that gut-directed hypnotherapy is highly effective in the treatment of children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study shows that the effects of hypnotherapy are long lasting, as evidenced by two thirds of children remaining in remission almost five years after treatment.

Designing and Delivering a Hypnotherapy Service for Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary Care.
Bremner, H. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2012; 3(3):210-215. 
This paper illustrates the clinical effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of IBS and suggests ways of incorporating hypnotherapy in the medical treatment of IBS.

Hypnotherapy Eases Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms.
Brown, T. 2012 Apr 06.
This article describes the use of hypnotherapy in IBS patients and illustrates its positive, long-term effects on the IBS symptoms and patients’ quality of life.

Hypnosis and irritable bowel syndrome: a review of efficacy and mechanism of action.
Tan G, Hammond DC, Joseph G. Am J Clin Hypn. 2005 Jan; 47(3):161-78.
This paper reviews 14 published studies on the efficacy of hypnosis in treating IBS. The authors concluded that hypnosis treatment for IBS is efficacious, specific and effective. Hypnotherapy not only consistently improves IBS symptoms, but positively affects non-colonic symptoms.

Hypnosis for headaches and migraines

Review of the efficacy of clinical hypnosis with headaches and migraines.
Hammond DC. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2007 Apr; 55(2):207-19.
This paper provides a review of the research investigating the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of headaches and migraines. The paper concludes that hypnosis is a safe, effective and well-established treatment for headaches and migraines.

Hypnotic relaxation vs amitriptyline for tension-type headache: let the patient choose.
Ezra Y, Gotkine M, Goldman S, Adahan HM, Ben-Hur T. Headache. 2012 May; 52(5):785-91.
Patients who chose hypnotic relaxation for treatment of headaches reported greater symptom relief than those choosing amitriptyline treatment.

Chronic daily headache: helping adolescents help themselves with self-hypnosis.
Kohen DP. Am J Clin Hypn. 2011 Jul; 54(1):32-46.
Adolescents who previously did not respond to pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies for chronic daily headaches reported decreased pain frequency, pain intensity and pain duration as a result of hypnosis therapy.

Long-term follow-up of self-hypnosis training for recurrent headaches: what the children say.
Kohen DP. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Oct; 58(4):417-32.
In this study focusing on children and adolescents suffering from headaches, the practice of self-hypnosis resulted in a significant reduction of headache pain. The effects of hypnosis practice lasted for many years following training. The researchers also found that the young people commonly generalized the skills learned through self-hypnosis to modulate other problems in their lives (spontaneous generalizability).

Self-hypnosis training for headaches in children and adolescents.
Kohen DP, Zajac R. J Pediatr. 2007 Jun;150(6):635-9.
Children and youths who learned self-hypnosis for recurrent headaches reported a significant reduction in the frequency, intensity and average duration of headache pain. There were no adverse side effects of self-hypnosis.

Hypnosis and autogenic training in the treatment of tension headaches: a two-phase constructive design study with follow-up.
Zitman FG, van Dyck R, Spinhoven P, Linssen AC. J Psychosom Res. 1992 Apr; 36(3):219-28.
Autogenic relaxation training and hypnosis were compared as treatments for tension headaches. Both treatments reduced pain, but hypnosis had a better long-term effect.

Hypnosis for TMJ and myofascial pain

Hypnorelaxation as treatment for myofascial pain disorder: a comparative study.
Winocur E, Gavish A, Emodi-Perlman A, Halachmi M, Eli I. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002 Apr; 93(4):429-34.
This research confirms that hypnosis is an effective mode of treatment for muscular face and jaw pain (masticatory myofascial pain disorders).

Effect of hypnosis on pain and blink reflexes in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders.
Abrahamsen R, Baad-Hansen L, Zachariae R, Svensson P. Clin J Pain. 2011 May; 27(4):344-51. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181ffbfcb.
Hypnosis reduces complex temporomandibular disorder (TMJ) pain because of its effect on the cortical part of the brain.

Effect of hypnotic pain modulation on brain activity in patients with temporomandibular disorder pain.
Abrahamsen R, Dietz M, Lodahl S, Roepstorff A, Zachariae R, Østergaard L, Svensson P. Pain. 2010 Dec; 151(3):825-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.09.020. Epub 2010 Oct 8
This study is the first to describe the hypnotic modulation of brain activity associated with the processing of pain in the brain in patients suffering chronic TMD /TMJ. Pain decrease is accomplished by a pronounced suppression of cortical activity during hypnosis.

Enhancing the efficacy of treatment for temporomandibular patients with muscular diagnosis through cognitive-behavioral intervention, including hypnosis: a randomized study.
Ferrando M, Galdón MJ, Durá E, Andreu Y, Jiménez Y, Poveda R. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Jan;113(1):81-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.08.020. Epub 2012 Feb 3.
This study evaluated the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), including hypnosis, in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD/TMJ) which were muscular in origin. CBT, including hypnosis, significantly improved the standard treatment outcome in TMD/TMJ patients.

Hypnosis in the management of persistent idiopathic orofacial pain–clinical and psychosocial findings.
Abrahamsen R, Baad-Hansen L, Svensson P. Pain. 2008 May;136(1-2):44-52. Epub 2007 Aug 6.
This study concludes that hypnosis offers clinically relevant pain relief from persistent face and jaw pain. The authors suggest inclusion of stress management and, possibly, psychotherapy in the treatment protocol for this patient population.

Medical hypnosis for temporomandibular disorders: treatment efficacy and medical utilization outcome.
Simon EP, Lewis DM. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000 Jul; 90(1):54-63.
Medical hypnosis appears to be an effective treatment modality for TMD, as evidenced in a reduction of TMD symptoms and a decreased need for other medical interventions.

Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients.
Abrahamsen R, Zachariae R, Svensson P. J Oral Rehabil. 2009 Aug; 36(8):556-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2009.01974.x.
This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with a focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. The hypnosis group significantly reduced daily pain scores and improved sleep. The hypnosis group also showed reduced somatization and decreased anxiety and obsessive compulsive symptoms, while exhibiting increased use of the coping strategies.

Effect of hypnotic pain modulation on brain activity in patients with temporomandibular disorder pain.
Abrahamsen R, Dietz M, Lodahl S, Roepstorff A, Zachariae R, Østergaard L, Svensson P. Pain. 2010 Dec;151(3):825-33. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.09.020. Epub 2010 Oct 8.
This paper examines how hypnosis affects the brain to produce decreased pain perception in TMJ patients.

The effects of a medical hypnotherapy on clothing industry employees suffering from chronic pain.
Roja Z, Kalkis V, Roja I, Kalkis H. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2013 Sep 25; 8(1):25. doi: 10.1186/1745-6673-8-25.
This study evaluated effectiveness of a medical hypnotherapy program provided to factory workers suffering from chronic muscle tension, muscular fatigue and muscular (myofascial) pain. Workers who participated in the medical hypnotherapy program reported decreased pain intensity, decreased muscle tension, decreased muscular fatigue, decreased emotional stress and an overall increase in the quality of life.

Hypnosis for tinnitus (ringing in the ear)

Effectiveness of Ericksonian hypnosis in tinnitus therapy: preliminary results.
Yazici ZM, Sayin I, Gökkuş G, Alatas E, Kaya H, Kayhan FT. B-ENT. 2012; 8(1):7-12.
This study demonstrated the effectiveness of Ericksonian hypnosis in reducing the impact of tinnitus on patients’ quality of life.

Ericksonian hypnosis in tinnitus therapy.
Maudoux A, Bonnet S, Lhonneux-Ledoux F, Lefebvre P. B-ENT. 2007; 3 Suppl 7:75-7.
The results of this clinical trial demonstrate that Ericksonian hypnosis, in particular using self-hypnosis, is a promising technique for treating patients with tinnitus.

Comparison between self-hypnosis, masking and attentiveness for alleviation of chronic tinnitus.
Attias J, Shemesh Z, Sohmer H, Gold S, Shoham C, Faraggi D. Audiology. 1993 May-Jun; 32(3):205-12.
Hypnosis significantly reduced the tinnitus severity. Attentiveness to patient complaints only partially relieved the tinnitus. Masking did not have any significant effect.

Efficacy of self-hypnosis for tinnitus relief.
Attias J, Shemesh Z, Shoham C, Shahar A, Sohmer H. Scand Audiol. 1990;19(4):245-9.
Self-hypnosis provided tinnitus relief both in short term and long term.

Hypnosis for fibromyalgia, cancer pain, burn pain and other pain conditions

Effect of hypnotic suggestion on fibromyalgic pain: comparison between hypnosis and relaxation.
Castel A, Pérez M, Sala J, Padrol A, Rull M. Eur J Pain. 2007 May; 11(4):463-8. Epub 2006 Aug 4.
This study showed that hypnosis reduced fibromyalgia pain. However, hypnosis followed by analgesia suggestions had a greater effect on the intensity and sensory dimension of the pain than hypnosis followed by relaxation suggestions.

Chronic low-back pain modulation is enhanced by hypnotic analgesic suggestion by recruiting an emotional network: a PET imaging study.
Nusbaum F, Redouté J, Le Bars D, Volckmann P, Simon F, Hannoun S, Ribes G, Gaucher J, Laurent B, Sappey-Marinier D. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2011 Jan; 59(1):27-44.
This study shows that hypnosis affects both cognitive-sensory and emotional pain modulation networks in the brain, resulting in reduction of perceived pain.

A comparison of self-hypnosis versus progressive muscle relaxation in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.
Jensen MP, Barber J, Romano JM, Molton IR, Raichle KA, Osborne TL, Engel JM, Stoelb BL, Kraft GH, Patterson DR. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2009 Apr; 57(2):198-221.
This study supports the efficacy of self-hypnosis training for the management of chronic neuropathic pain in persons with MS.

Effects of self-hypnosis training and cognitive restructuring on daily pain intensity and catastrophizing in individuals with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.
Jensen MP, Ehde DM, Gertz KJ, Stoelb BL, Dillworth TM, Hirsh AT, Molton IR, Kraft GH. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2011 Jan; 59(1):45-63.
Self-hypnosis training produced greater neuropathic pain (MS pain) reduction than cognitive restructuring. The combined self-hypnosis and cognitive restructuring treatment was even more effective than hypnosis alone.

Hypnosis in the treatment of acute pain in the emergency department setting.
Deltito JA. Postgrad Med J. 1984 Apr; 60(702):263-6.
Hypnosis can be used as an effective adjunct or substitute for analgesic medications in the ER when drugs prove to be ineffective or contraindicated.

General information about hypnosis for pain

Hypnosis for treatment of pain in children.
Rogovik AL, Goldman RD. Can Fam Physician. 2007 May; 53(5):823-5.
Clinical hypnosis and self-hypnosis are effective as adjunct treatments for children in pain. Examples include painful medical procedures, such as bone marrow aspiration and lumbar puncture in pediatric cancer patients, postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing surgery, and chronic headaches.

Neurophysiology of pain and hypnosis for chronic pain.
Dillworth T, Mendosa EM, Jensen MP. Transl Behav Med. 2012 March; 2(1): 65–72.
A review of controlled clinical studies validating the use of hypnosis for treatment of chronic pain.

The Role of Suggestions in Hypnosis for Chronic Pain: A Review of the Literature.
Dillworth T, Jensen MP. Open Pain J. 2010; 3(1):39-51.
This review analyzes twenty five studies which compare hypnosis to relaxation and biofeedback in adult populations with various chronic pain conditions. Overall, these studies found hypnosis to be more effective than relaxation or biofeedback.

The efficacy of hypnotic analgesia in adults: a review of the literature.
Stoelb BL, Molton IR, Jensen MP, Patterson DR. Contemp Hypn. 2009 Mar 1; 26(1):24-39.
This article reviews randomized, controlled trials of hypnotic analgesia for the treatment of chronic and acute pain in adults. The results indicate that hypnotic analgesia consistently results in greater decreases of pain, compared to standard care and other non-standard interventions.

Hypnotherapy for the management of chronic pain.
Elkins G, Jensen MP, Patterson DR. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2007 Jul; 55(3):275-87.
This paper reviews thirteen studies which compare outcomes from two types of treatments for chronic pain: hypnosis and three non-hypnotic interventions (attention, physical therapy, and education). The studies showed that hypnosis was generally more effective than non-hypnotic interventions in reducing pain and improving patients’ quality of life.

Hypnotic treatment of chronic pain.
Jensen M, Patterson DR. J Behav Med. 2006 Feb; 29(1):95-124. Epub 2006 Jan 11.
This article reviews controlled trials of hypnotic treatment for chronic pain. The findings indicate that hypnotic analgesia produces significantly greater decreases in pain relative to no-treatment and to some non-hypnotic interventions, such as medication management, physical therapy, and education/advice.

Hypnosis and clinical pain.
Patterson DR, Jensen MP. Psychol Bull. 2003 Jul; 129(4):495-521.
Review of randomized controlled studies with clinical populations indicate that hypnosis has a reliable and significant impact on acute procedural pain and chronic pain conditions.

A meta-analysis of hypnotically induced analgesia: how effective is hypnosis?
Montgomery GH, DuHamel KN, Redd WH. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2000 Apr; 48(2):138-53.
Meta-analysis of 18 studies supports the efficacy of hypnotic techniques for pain management. The results also indicate that hypnotic suggestion is equally effective in reducing both clinical and experimental pain.

Hypnosis treatment of clinical pain: understanding why hypnosis is useful.
Holroyd J. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1996 Jan; 44(1):33-51.
The author reviews controlled clinical studies assessing efficacy of hypnosis for pain management. Hypnosis compares favorably with other interventions for pain management.

Expanding hypnotic pain management to the affective dimension of pain.
Feldman JB. Am J Clin Hypn. 2009 Jan; 51(3):235-54.
This paper presents both the scientific background and the general clinical approaches used to affect both the emotional and sensory dimensions of pain during hypnotherapy interventions for pain relief.

Recent advances in the application of hypnosis to pain management.
Chaves JF. Am J Clin Hypn. 1994 Oct; 37(2):117-29.
This paper emphasizes the multifaceted nature of hypnotic interventions and the importance of patients’ attitudes, expectations, and beliefs in modulating the pain experience.

Focused analgesia and generalized relaxation produce differential hypnotic analgesia in response to ascending stimulus intensity.
Sharav Y, Tal M. Int J Psychophysiol. 2004 Apr; 52(2):187-96.
This study examines the effects of different types of hypnotic suggestions (generalized relaxation and focused analgesia) on the perception of pain in highly-hypnotizable and low-hypnotizable subjects.

Hypnosis for pain and anxiety during medical procedures

Hypnosis for the management of chronic and cancer procedure-related pain in children.
Tomé-Pires C, Miró J. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2012 Oct; 60(4):432-57.
This study reviewed 12 randomized clinical trials of hypnotic treatments for chronic and cancer procedure-related pain in children and confirmed that hypnosis is an effective pain-control technique in this patient population.

Adjunctive non-pharmacological analgesia for invasive medical procedures: a randomised trial.
Lang EV, Benotsch EG, Fick LJ, Lutgendorf S, Berbaum ML, Berbaum KS, Logan H, Spiegel D. Lancet. 2000 Apr 29; 355(9214):1486-90.
Self-hypnosis significantly shortened surgical procedure time and improved haemodynamic stability during the procedure. Hypnosis also had a pronounced effect on procedural pain and anxiety reduction.

Adjunctive self-hypnotic relaxation for outpatient medical procedures: a prospective randomized trial with women undergoing large core breast biopsy.
Lang EV, Berbaum KS, Faintuch S, Hatsiopoulou O, Halsey N, Li X, Berbaum ML, Laser E, Baum J. Pain. 2006 Dec 15; 126(1-3):155-64. Epub 2006 Sep 7.
Hypnosis decreased procedural pain and anxiety during outpatient surgical procedures.

Practical hypnotic interventions during invasive cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Flory N, Lang E. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008 Aug; 22(4):709-25, ix.
Several randomized controlled trials reviewed in this article have shown that hypnotic techniques are effective in reducing pain and anxiety, stabilizing vital signs and reducing procedure time during ambulatory surgical procedures.

Hypnosis reduces distress and duration of an invasive medical procedure for children.
Butler LD, Symons BK, Henderson SL, Shortliffe LD, Spiegel D. Pediatrics. 2005 Jan; 115(1):e77-85.
When utilized during surgical medical procedures, hypnosis reduced distress in children, improved ease of procedure for the medical staff and resulted in a significant reduction of the procedure duration.

A randomized, controlled trial of immersive virtual reality analgesia, during physical therapy for pediatric burns.
Schmitt YS, Hoffman HG, Blough DK, Patterson DR, Jensen MP, Soltani M, Carrougher GJ, Nakamura D, Sharar SR. Burns. 2011 Feb; 37(1):61-8. Epub 2010 Aug 7.
Virtual reality was used as a form of hypnotic induction to reduce pain in pediatric patients undergoing painful physical therapy procedures. The intervention had positive outcomes.

Hypnosis for labor pain and anxiety and hypnosis for IVF

Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.
Werner A, Uldbjerg N, Zachariae R, Wu CS, Nohr EA. Birth. 2013 Dec;40(4):272-80. doi: 0.1111/birt.12071.
In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis significantly improved the women’s childbirth experience.

Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study.
Catoire P, Delaunay L, Dannappel T, Baracchini D, Marcadet-Fredet S, Moreau O, Pacaud L, Przyrowski D, Marret E. Am J Clin Hypn. 2013 Apr; 55(4):378-86.
The study shows that hypnosis during embryo transfer is as effective as diazepam in terms of pregnancy ratio and anxiolytic effects, but has fewer side effects.

Hypnosis in pregnancy with intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios: an innovative approach.
Shah MC, Thakkar SH, Vyas RB. Am J Clin Hypn. 2011 Oct; 54(2):116-23.
This study shows that hypnosis used in addition to the conventional medical management in complicated pregnancies decreased the rate of pre-term delivery and incidence of low-weight babies. Addition of hypnosis also significantly reduced need for cesarean section.

The efficacy of hypnosis as an intervention for labor and delivery pain: a comprehensive methodological review.
Landolt AS, Milling LS. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011 Aug; 31(6):1022-31. Epub 2011 Jun 23.
This paper presents a review of research on the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing labor and delivery pain. The review shows that hypnosis is consistently shown to be more effective than standard medical care, supportive counseling, and childbirth education classes in reducing pain. Other benefits include better infant Apgar scores and shorter Stage 1 labor.

Impact of hypnosis during embryo transfer on the outcome of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: a case-control study.
Levitas E, Parmet A, Lunenfeld E, Bentov Y, Burstein E, Friger M, Potashnik G. Fertil Steril. 2006 May; 85(5):1404-8. Epub 2006 Mar 29.
This study suggests that the use of hypnosis during embryo transfer significantly increases implantation and clinical pregnancy rate in the IVF/embryo-transfer patients. Furthermore, patients who engage in hypnosis have a more favorable attitude towards the treatment.

Practical uses of clinical hypnosis in enhancing fertility, healthy pregnancy and childbirth.
James U. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009 Nov;15(4):239-41. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.09.005. Epub 2009 Sep 24.
This article identifies practical uses of hypnosis within midwifery. The author and her team teaches clinical hypnosis at 11 medical schools in the UK.

Hypnosis for hot flashes/menopause symptoms and postpartum depression

Clinical hypnosis in the treatment of postmenopausal hot flashes: a randomized controlled trial.
Elkins GR, Fisher WI, Johnson AK, Carpenter JS, Keith TZ. Menopause. 2013 Mar; 20(3):291-8. doi: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31826ce3ed.
Clinical hypnosis results in significant reductions in self-reported and physiologically measured hot flashes and hot flash scores in postmenopausal women.

When the bough breaks: rethinking treatment strategies for perinatal depression.
Rosenquist SE. Am J Clin Hypn. 2013 Jan; 55(3):291-323.
This article addresses the effectiveness of strategic cognitive-behavioral therapy enhanced with hypnosis for treatment of perinatal depression.

Hypnosis for Tourette syndrome

Nonpharmacological treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome adding videotape training to self-hypnosis.
Lazarus JE, Klein SK. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Jul-Aug;31(6):498-504. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181e56c5d.
This study analyzes cases of 37 children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome treated with self-hypnosis for tic control. Self-hypnosis proved to be effective in achieving tic control.

Clinical research on the utility of hypnosis in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders.
Nash MR, Perez N, Tasso A, Levy JJ. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2009 Oct;57(4):443-50. doi: 10.1080/00207140903099153.
The authors summarize 4 articles which address the role of hypnosis in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders/conditions.

Other interesting studies

Oxytocin as a moderator of hypnotizability.
Bryant RA, Hung L, Guastella AJ, Mitchell PB. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Jan; 37(1):162-6. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.05.010. Epub 2011 Jun 8.
It has been proven that rapport between hypnotist and subject greatly influences the results of hypnosis. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide which facilitates social bonding. In this study low hypnotizable individuals participated in hypnosis sessions with and without oxytocin. When low hypnotizable individuals were administered oxytocin via nasal spray, their level of hypnotic responding increased significantly compared to hypnotic responding levels prior to oxytocin administration. This is the first demonstration of a neurochemical basis for hypnotic responding, and points to a potential neural mechanism to explain hypnotizability.

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